Promoting athletic performance through nutritional supplementation has been a popular research topic in sports science, and caffeine has been proven in many studies to be a legitimate supplement that can effectively enhance aerobic and anaerobic performance. However, whether caffeine, which also has an analgesic effect, can be effective in reducing muscle strength performance when the exercise causes delayed muscle soreness in the case of supplementation, and whether the effect has gender differences, has not been clarified. Therefore, we designed an experiment in which a downhill running caused running-induced delayed muscle soreness with male and female athletes, followed by caffeine supplementation of about three cups of American coffee, and observed the degree of muscle soreness change and muscle strength performance. The results showed that caffeine supplementation was effective in terms of reducing the muscle pain of both male and female athletes, but the degree of reduction in pain was higher in men than in women. Both men and women, however, can benefit from the same supplement of coffee that reduces the maximum loss of muscle strength. If you have muscle soreness and want to exercise, drink some coffee next time.